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Management of time in early childhood settings in Thailand


This research was aimed to describe through direct observation how teachers organize children’s time in child care centers and educational programs in Thailand. The instrument used to accomplish this objective was the Management of Time (MOT) Instrument recording the nature, diversity, and duration of activities proposed by teachers. The MOT categories consisted of physical, expressive, storytelling/ language, pre-academic, religious, media-related, personal/social, domestic/economic, transitional, waiting, and free activities; whereas group structure categories covered a whole-group, part-group, joint activity, and alone. The MOT Observation System provided information to answer these two questions: (1) what types of activities do teachers propose that children do? and (2) how do teachers organize children for various activities ? The study presents the MOT findings for the 31 educational programs and the 22 child care centers in Thailand. The findings are based on a total of 173 hours of MOT observation in educational programs and a total of 128 hours of observation in child care centers. According to type of activity, it was found that in both types of settings, teachers proposed that children spend the highest percentages of their time in 2 categories of activities, pre-academic (educational programs, 19%; child care centers, 20%) and personal/social (educational programs, 16%; child care centers, 18%). In child care centers, teachers also allocated 19% of the time to free activities. As for group structure, on average, teachers in both types of settings proposed a whole-group structure most of the time (94% in educational programs, 95% in child care centers). Educational program teachers used part-group structure for most of the remainder of the time (5%), while child care center teachers proposed the group structure categories of part-group and alone for nearly equal percentages of time (3% and 2%, respectively). Furthermore, analysis of group structure for major and specific categories of activities showed that teachers in educational programs and in child care centers had similar patterns of selecting various group structures for the major activity categories. For example, in both types of settings, teachers proposed a whole-group structure 90% or more of the total time for each activity category except domestic/economic activities and mixed activities.


Associate Professor Dr. Nittaya Passornsiri

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management of time
early childhood



ปีที่ 2 ม.ค. - ธ.ค. 2555




231 ครั้ง




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